Parambikulam Tiger Reserve is a well-protected ecological portion of the Anamalai sub unit of Western Ghats, as it is buffered by ecologically similar forests of other forest divisions and Protected Areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

The Reserve supports diverse habitat types viz., evergreen forests, semi evergreen, moist deciduous, dry deciduous and shola forests. Other unique habitats like montane grasslands and marshy grasslands known locally as ‘vayals’ are here. Considerable extent of man-made teak plantations and the deep freshwater ecosystem created by the construction of three dams add to the diversity of the place.

History of Parambikulam

During the 19th century , the forests of Parambikulam were in two broad administrative units viz., Sungam Forest Reserve and Parambikulam Forest Reserve. Porter, in 1886 wrote the first ever plan to manage the Sungam Forest Reserve. Heavy exploitation of forests for valuable timber started then. Teak planting began in Parambikulam during 1921 and in 1983 was the last plantation raised. Sungam Forest Reserve was administratively the Sungam Range of erstwhile Nemmara Forest Division and Parambikulam Forest Reserve was the Parambikulam Range. One of the major milestones was the introduction of the tram way in 1907.

Parambikulam Aliyar Project

Highly imaginative in concept, bold in its approach, ingenious in planning and beneficial on its completion, this inter state, multi purpose, multi valley parambikulam aliyar project is truly a unique one. It successfully accomplishes the diversion and integration of 8 West flowing rivers, 6 in the Anaimalai Hills and 2 in the plains for the benefit of the drought prone areas in the Coimbatore and Erode district of Tamilnadu State and stabilizing the existing irrigation system in Chittoorpuzha of Kerala State. Dams on the 8 rivers with inter connecting tunnels have been constructed. The tunnels divert the waters impounded in the rivers to the plains of the Coimbatore District and Erode District of Tamilnadu State and Chittur area of the Kerala State.

Tribes of Parambikulam

The Parambikulam Tiger Reserve is the home for four different tribes of indigenous people, including Kadar, Malasar, Muthuvan and Malamalasar, settled in six colonies, each with their own cultural, socio-economic and spatial organisation.